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Types Of Utility

The four types of economic utility are form, time, place, and possession, whereby utility refers to the usefulness or value that consumers experience from a product. The economic utilities help assess consumer purchase decisions and pinpoint the drivers behind those decisions.
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Law of Diminishing & Its Limitations

The Law Of Diminishing Marginal Utility states that all else equal as consumption increases the marginal utility derived from each additional unit declines. Marginal utility is derived as the change in utility as an additional unit is consumed.
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Features of Utility

Utility refers to the total satisfaction or value that you get from consuming a particular product or service. Products with higher utility usually have more demand, meaning they can command higher prices.
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Exception of Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility

The consumer who is consuming the goods should be logical and knowledgeable to consume every unit of goods. The goods which are to be consumed should be equal in size and shape. Consumer should consume the goods without time gap.
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Concept of Utility

Utility refers to the total satisfaction or value that you get from consuming a particular product or service. Products with higher utility usually have more demand, meaning they can command higher prices.
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Assumptions Of Law of DMU

The assumptions in the law of diminishing marginal utility: The quality of successive units of goods should remain the same. If the quality of the goods increase or decrease, the law of diminishing marginal utility may not be proven true.
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Variation In Supply

When quantity supplied of a commodity varies due to change in its price, other factors remaining constant. It is known as variations in supply.
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Supply Schedule

Supply schedule is a chart that shows how much product a supplier will have to produce to meet consumer demand at a specified price based on the supply curve.
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Exceptions of law of Supply

The normal law of supply is widely applicable to a large number of Products. There are certain exceptions to law of supply, like a change in the price of a good does not lead to a change in its quantity supplied in the positive direction.
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Determinants of Supply

The most obvious one of the determinants of supply is the price of the product/service. With all other parameters being equal, the supply of a product increases if its relative price is higher.
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Changes In Supply

A change in supply happens when the suppliers of a product have to work in different conditions. If the situation for suppliers changes, a different quantity of a product will be on sale at each price.
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Assumptions of law of supply

The term “other things remaining the same” refers to the following assumptions in the law of supply: No change in the state of technology. No change in the price of factors of production.
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Sources Of Corporate Finance

Sources Of Corporate Finance

Sources of corporate finance of business are equity, debentures, debt, retained profits, working-capital loans, term financing, letter of credit, venture funding and so forth.
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Share and Its Features

Shares a company's capital is divided into small equal units of a finite number. Each unit is known as a share. In simple terms, a share is a percentage of ownership in a company or a financial asset.
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Determinants of Retained Earning

the determinants of retained earnings it was concluded that profit after tax, investment opportunities, availability of external funds, cost of borrowings, dividend policy and the shareholding patterns had been the major determinants of retained earnings.
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Preference Shares & Types of Preference Shares

Preference shares are shares in the equity of a company that entitle the holder to a fixed dividend amount to be paid by the issuer. This dividend must be paid before the company can issue any dividends to its common shareholders.
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Distinguish Between Owned Capital and Borrowed Capital

Owned Capital refers to the Capital collected by issuing various types of shares. Borrowed capital refer tot he capital collected by issuing debentures, bonds, taking loans from banks. It is debt or owned capital.
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Equity Share and Its Features

Equity shares are long-term financing sources for any company. These shares are issued to the general public and are non-redeemable in nature. Investors in such shares hold the right to vote, share profits and claim assets of a company.
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Distinguish Between Equity Shares & Preference Shares

Equity shares represent the extent of ownership in a company. Preference shares come with preferential rights when it comes to receiving dividend or repaying capital.
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Distinguish Between Share and Debenture

Shares are the company-owned capital. Debentures are the borrowed capital of the company. The person who holds the ownership of the shares is called as Shareholders. The person who holds the ownership of the Debentures is called as Debenture holders.
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Debentures & Types Of Debentures

Debentures are a debt instrument used by companies and government to issue the loan. Secured and Unsecured, Registered and Bearer, Convertible and Non-Convertible, First and Second are four types of Debentures.
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Features of Debentures

The definition of a debenture is a long-term bond issued by a company, or an unsecured loan that a company issues without a pledge of assets. An interest-bearing bond issued by a power company is an example of a debenture.
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Commercial Banks & Schemes Of Commercial Banks

The term commercial bank refers to a financial institution that accepts deposits, offers checking account services, makes various loans, and offers basic financial products like certificates of deposit (CDs) and savings accounts to individuals and small businesses.
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Theoretical Difficulties in Measuring National Income

There are many theoretical difficulties in the measurement of national income for examples, Transfer payments, Illegal income, Unpaid services, production for self-consumption and so many.
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Methods of Measurement of National Income

The national income of a country can be measured by three alternative methods: (i) Product Method (ii) Income Method, and (iii) Expenditure Method. 1. Product Method: In this method, national income is measured as a flow of goods and services.
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Importance Of National Income

National income data is important for the economy of a country. National Income also helps to generate economic models like growth models, investment models, etc.
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Features Of National Income

National income is the total value a country's final output of all new goods and services produced in one year. Understanding how national income is created is the starting point for macroeconomics.
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Concept Of Green GNP

Green GNP is the highest aggregate value of final goods produced within a given period by domestically‐owned factors of production and environmental capital.
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Circular Flow of National Income

The circular flow of income shows the flow of money from economic activity between households and firms. Households receive payments for their services (income) and use this money to buy the output of firms (consumption).
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Importance Of Micro Economics

Micro economics shows how monopoly leads to misallocation of resources and, therefore, involves loss of economic efficiency or welfare. It also makes important and useful policy recommendations to regulate monopoly so as to attain economic efficiency or maximum welfare.
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